The first to receive a patent about the elevator
Otis Tufts was the first American engineer to receive a patent for a vertical elevator, but he was better known as the inventor of a steam-powered printer.
Elevators open up a new era for skyscrapers and contribute to transforming the landscape and architecture of the modern city. The development history of the elevator and the inventors is also very special.
Otis Tufts is considered the father of the passenger elevator.
Archimedes, Greek mathematician, physicist and astronomer, is often credited with inventing the first known elevator. His equipment is operated by ropes and pulleys. The ropes are wrapped around a tubular shaft winding by a winch and lever.
The first elevators, or hoists, were primarily used to lift heavy objects, such as water or construction materials.
According to Livescience, Louis XV has one of the earliest elevators designed specifically for passengers, called "flying chairs." It was installed by Blaise-Henri Arnoult at the Palace of Versailles in 1743.
At that time, Louis needed a private elevator to allow his mistress to secretly visit him. This elevator is operated by pulling a rope connected to the pulley system with counterweights.
The next big leap in elevator technology was the invention of the steam engine in 1765 by James Watt. The new invention allows elevators to move heavier, heavier objects - such as coal, wood and steel - to the upper floors of taller buildings as construction exploded during the Industrial Revolution.
In 1852, Elisha Otis and his sons devised an elevator design using a safety device. A wooden frame at the top of the platform will bounce off the edge of the elevator shaft if the rope is broken, essentially acting as a brake.
Elisha Otis called it a "safety hoist" and demonstrated this design at the New York World Fair in 1854. Otis rode the "high platform" into the air and then cut the strings, but, thanks to the brakes, It just falls a few inches before it stops.
Elisha Otis founded Otis Brothers Elevator Company (now known as Otis Elevator Company, one of the world's largest elevator companies), installed the first public elevator in a department store in floor in New York in 1874. Electric elevator was born in the 1880s.
However, the real inventor of the modern and patented passenger elevator is Otis Tufts. Two years before Elisha Otis and his son came up with a safe elevator solution, Otis Tufts patented a lift design with benches inside a closed car, with doors that open and close automatically.
Otis Tufts's design abandoned the usual rope and pulley system due to safety concerns. Instead, he uses the concept of screw nuts up and down screws.
The elevator car is a nut, threaded into a giant steel screw that extends the entire length of the shaft. Although it is very safe, it is also expensive and impractical - especially for very tall buildings.
Drawings and elevator models of Otis Tuft.
"Imprint" with other industrial patents
Otis Tufts was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA) in 1804. At the age of 21, he moved to Lowell to start the career of a mechanic and inventor.
Before becoming the first to receive a patent on elevators, Otis Tufts was the one who perfected and built the printer.
Otis Tufts elevators are quite different. He described his invention as "an elevator to transport people".
Otis Tuft's elevator design includes an airtight compartment with doors that can open and close automatically, protecting passengers from moving machinery in the elevator, which can "absorb" clothes or mechanical parts when people go through.
This elevator also has benches for people to sit on. That's the clearer evidence that this lift is designed to move people, not furniture.
Because of the coincidence of the Otis name so many people have confused, between Otis Tufts and Elisha Otis, founder of Otis Brothers elevator company.
The elevator invented by Otis Tufts was installed at New York's Fifth Avenue Hotel in 1859, and for 15 years, the elevator served the seven-storey building without incident.
Obviously, the elevator invented by Otis Tufts is really safe, but according to Lee Gray, Professor of School of Architecture UNC Charlotte (School of Architecture, UNC Charlotte): "It's too complicated, too expensive. Technological points, solutions of Otis Tufts are not very acceptable ".
That's why, after being granted a patent, Otis Tufts sold a handful of elevators, but because of his price, his design was not widely adopted.
Meanwhile, although the first elevator invented by Elisha Otis was supposed to serve the transport of goods, Elisha Otis with the Otis Brothers company has continued to improve the safety and efficiency of the elevator, while OtisTufts is better known for its steam-powered inventions.
The first hull iron steamer was built by Otis Tufts, making boat travel much safer. He also invented a steam pile press, used to support the construction of foundations of buildings.
Harnessing the power of steam, Tufts's steam pile presses quickly speed up the construction of buildings and may have allowed buildings to grow taller by being able to “pile piles” deeper when working. nail.
According to Professor Lee Gray, the invention of Otis Tufts opened us up to the concept of modern elevators.
Otis Tufts died in 1869, aged 65.
Otis Elevator Company, now owned by Elisha Otis' son, installed the first control system that automatically controlled the different speed of elevators in 1924.
The system automatically controls the acceleration, speed between floors and deceleration when the elevator stops. Otis Lifts have installed elevators in the newly completed Empire State Building, capable of moving 1,200 feet per minute (366 meters per minute). The Empire State Building currently has 73 elevators.